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北京市生活垃圾治理白皮书

WHITE PAPER ON THE DOMESTIC GARBAGE DISPOSAL IN BEIJING

Foreword

In order to enhance the urban function of the capital and improve the living standard of residents, the Beijing Municipal Government has been increasing its investment in domestic garbage disposal facilities and its emphasis in comprehensive environmental treatment, leading to a significant improvement on the urban and suburban environment. However, it is still difficult to make the current situation of domestic garbage disposal meet the requirement of the social and economic development in the future, when assessed according to the requirements of hosting the forthcoming Olympic Game with the best quality, taking the lead in basically accomplishing modernization and becoming a modern metropolitan city with international dimension. After the epidemic of SARS, people from all walks of life, including citizens pay more attention upon environmental sanitation, both urban and suburban, and show stronger desire in environment protection and pursuit of civilized and healthy lifestyle. This makes it urgent to prepare the “White Paper on The Disposal of Domestic Garbage In Beijing” (hereinafter referred to as the “White Paper”), a paper to be drafted to incorporate a clear objective and efficient implementation methods and to meet the requirements of “Green Olympic”, to guide the further development of the domestic garbage disposal management in Beijing.

In line with the decisions of the Beijing Municipal Government, Beijing Municipal Administration Commission initiated the drafting of the White Paper, based on “The Outline of the Tenth Five-Year Plan on Beijing National Economic and Social Development”, “The Layout on the Establishment of the Garbage Disposal Facilities to Fulfill Olympic Implementation Plan” and “Beijing Metropolis Appearance and Enviromental Sanitation Regulations”, and in consideration of the post-SARS situation. When drafting this White Paper, Beijing Municipal Administration Commission fully absorbed the advanced concepts, both domestic and abroad, and widely sought the opinions and proposals from various district and county governments, relevant departments, relevant social bodies and experts. This drafting has been passed in the regular meeting of the Municipal Government.

The White Paper, by framing the reduction of, resource utilization of, pollution-free treatment of and industrialization of the domestic garbage, by focusing on the solutions to the present problems in connection with the collection and disposal of the domestic garbage and medical waste, and based on the analysis of the present situation and problems of the garbage disposal in Beijing, proposes the principles, aims, tasks and solutions of the domestic garbage disposal. The proposed aims and tasks shall be completed entirely by the year 2008.

I. The Present Situation Of Garbage Disposal And The Relevant Forecast

1. The Development

    1. 1.1 Since 1980’s, especially during the period of “the Ninth Five-Year Plan”, both Beijing Municipal Government and District Governments have been increasing their investment in, and accelerating the establishment of, environmental protection facilities, and improving the relating management system. The system for the domestic garbage’s collection, transportation and disposal has been formed essentially. The method for the collection of the urban domestic garbage has developed from that of manual work like emptying garbage when the bell rung to that of mechanized and obturated work; and the disposal methods have developed from those of open-air pileup and of simplified burial to those of the pollution-free sanitary burial (the main method), of incineration, of composting and of comprehensive disposals (the auxiliary methods).
  1. 2. The Present Situation

1.2  The Volume Of Garbage

In Beijing, the daily average volume of garbage is 0.82 kg per person. The average volume of garbage for the whole city is 11,500 tons per day and 4,210,000 tons per year. The daily average volume of medical waste is more than 40 tons and the daily average volume of dining and kitchen waste is around 1,050 tons.

1.3 Garbage Collection

The main method of collection is that garbage is collected and sent to the designated garbage stations by the environmental sanitation service centers of districts, cleaning maintenance teams of streets and property management companies, and subsequently sent by the specialist teams to garbage treatment plants; the garbage produced by governmental offices, enterprises and social bodies shall be collected by environmental protection specialist teams under the relating contracts.

1.4 Garbage Classification

There are more than 3000 residential communities, mansions and industrial zones in Beijingamong which 1500 have been covered by property management, and the garbage classification, collection, transportation and disposal have been operated in 465 of them. The proportion of the classification of the city domestic garbage is 15%.

1.5 Garbage Disposal

The main methods include sanitary burial, composting and incineration, as proportion of 89.6%, 5.8% and 4.6% respectively. 17 garbage treatment facilities, composing of 9 sanitary burial fields, 2 junk composting factories, 2 incineration factories and 4 transportation transfer stations, have been set up. The daily garbage treatment capacity is 8,800 tons and the resource utilization rate is 10%.

1.6 Cleaning And Maintenance

The task is divided as follows: the trunk-roads of the city, such as Chang An Avenue, the Second Circle, the Third Circle and the Forth Circle, are under the responsibilities of specialist companies; the branch-roads are under the responsibilities of the environmental sanitation service centers of the counties and districts where they are located; the alleys and bystreets are under the responsibilities of subdistrict offices; residential communities and residential fallow premiers are under the responsibilities of property management companies; highways and expressways are under the responsibilities of their respective owners.

1.7 Garbage Management

The fairly developed garbage treatment management system has been formed in main areas of the eight urban districts and suburban satellite towns, but unavailable in the crossing border between the urban and rural areas and the suburban townships, where the open-air pileup or simple burial is common. Due to the undeveloped garbage management in most of the area of the rural areas, the volume of the domestic garbage actually transported therefrom to the treatment centers is only 3,210,000 tons per year.

1.8 Fees

Three kinds of fees are charged on individuals and entities concerned: the regular cleaning and maintenance fee, charged by relevant cleaning companies or property management companies; the city domestic garbage disposal fee, at 3 Yuan per household per month (in respect of temporary residents, 2 Yuan per person per month), collected by relevant community neighborhood committees or community property management companies by commission; the entrusted cleaning and transporting fee, at 25 Yuan per ton, charged by relevant cleaning and transporting companies upon the entrusters.

3. The Forecast On The Volume, Classification And Components Of Domestic Garbage

1.9 Variation On The Volume Of Garbage.

As the population expands, the economy develops and the living quality of people increases, the volume of garbage increases at a speed around 2% per year. By year 2008, the daily garbage volume of Beijing will reach 12,000 tons and annually, 4,380,000 tons. The daily medical waste will reach around 60 tons and the daily dining and kitchen garbage around 1,200 tons.

1.10 Changes On Classification.

As the environmental protection awareness of residents improves and the favorable government policies promote, it will climb gradually year by year for the application of garbage early-stage classification and the resource utilization rate. It is forecasted that the number of the communities, mansions and industrial zones with garbage classification will increase by 200-300 every year from now on, leading to a reduction on the annual garbage volume at 44,000 tons.

1.11 Changes In Garbage Components

As the living quality of people increases, the trends of the components variation of domestic garbage shall be as follows: - calorie keeps climbing, gravitational density declining, and the proportion of organic substances and the volume of recyclable substances increasing.

II.The Fundamental Principles Of Domestic Garbage Disposal

    1. 2.1 Human-Oriented Principle

Full-process management shall be implemented in respect of the garbage collection, transportation and final disposal. The second-time pollution shall be prevented and the people’s health shall be effectively safeguarded.?

    1. 2.2 Persistentable Development

Under the goal of establishing an ecological city, work in respect of the volume reduction, resource utilization and pollution-free treatment of domestic garbage shall be actively pushed and the quantity of garbage to be buried shall be reduced in a maximum extent, so as to bring together ecological environmental protection, reasonable resource utilization and effective pollution prevention.

    1. 2.3 Urban-Rural Area Integration

The chaos in the garbage treatment in the areas of the urban-rural crossing border and of the countryside, of township and of villages shall be changed and the garbage disposal in the abovementioned areas shall be incorporated into the environment and sanitary management system, to realize the integrated planning and management in the urban-rural area.

    1. 2.4 Social Participation

Investment from home and abroad into the construction and operation of the garbage disposal facilities is encouraged so as to realize diversified investment bodies, enterprisation in operation and industrialization in the garbage disposal. The system for social participation and supervision shall be developed with due expedition.

III. The Aim And Tasks Of Domestic Garbage Disposal By Year 2008

1. Aim

3.1 General Aim

By year 2008, the basic structure in respect of domestic garbage reduction, resource utilization, pollution free treatment and industrialization has been roughly formed. The systems of management, collection and disposal facilities, mainly consisting of garbage classification and collection, have been soundly developed.The scientification, regularization, standardization and legalization of the management have been constantly improved. The modern garbage treatment system with the characterization of urban-rural area unified management, reasonable layout, advanced technique and effective resource utilization has been fairly established.

2. Tasks

3.2 To Increase Investment In And Expedite The Construction Of Garbage Treatment Facilities

According to “The Outline of the Tenth Five-Year Plan on Beijing National Economic and Social Development”, “The Implemental Layout on the Garbage Disposal Facilities to Fulfill Olympic Implementation Plan”, by 2008, the construction of 15 new garbage treatment facilities, with the total daily disposal capacity of 12,500 tons, shall have been completed. The facilities to be constructed compose of 3 garbage burial stations, 7 comprehensive treatment plants, 3 burning plants and 2 transporting stations. The detailed plan is that: by year 2003, the establishment of Jiao Jia Po garbage burial station located in Mentougou shall be completed; by year 2005, the establishment of the garbage treatment plant in Fangshan, of the seven comprehensive treatment plants respectively located in Asuwei, Dongcun, Chaoyong, Haidian, Fangshan, Huairou and of the two garbage transporting stations separately located in Datun and Shijingshan shall be completed; the establishment of Anding (the second phase), of the two sanitary burial stations all located in Dadushe and of the three burning stations separately located in Chaoyang, Nangong and Haidian shall be completed by 2008.

3.3 To Improve The Rate Of Pollution-Free Disposal Of Garbage Within The Zone Of The Urban Ares

The rate of pollution-free disposal of garbage within the eight urban districts will reach 91% by year 2003, 93% by year 2004, 94% by year 2005, 96% by year 2006, 97% by year 2007 and 98% by year 2008.

3.4 To Expedite The Standardization Of Suburban Garbage Collection And Treatment

By year 2008, the garbage occurred in the satellite towns, in the areas where township governments are located, and in the plain areas where the collection and transportation of the garbage is convenient shall be completely collected and sent to the standardized treatment stations for disposal. The pollution-free treatment rate in the suburban area shall reach 20% by year 2003, 30% by year 2004, 35% by year 2005, 40% by year 2006, 45% by year 2007 and 50% by year 2008. To the areas failing to meet the above conditions, the effective ways and situations shall be worked out, while the local conditions thereof are taken into account, so that the simplified disposal of garbage shall follow the stipulation of the layout and be implemented in the designated areas.

3.5To Expand The Application Of Garbage Early-Stage Classification And To Increase The Resource Utilization Rate

The advanced treatment technique and science and technology policies for garbage disposal shall be adopted to improve the resource utilization rate. Upon 2008, the? proportion of application of garbage early-stage classification in the areas of the metropolis and townships shall increase from 15% as of today to 50% and the resource utilization rate shall increase from 10% as of today to 30%.

3.6  To Dispose Of The 73 Garbage Pileup Areas With The Total Pileup Volumes Over 200 Tons Each

The 9 pileup areas of garbage located within the Forth Circle Road shall be disposed of by year 2003; by year 2004, the 28 pileup areas of garbage located between the Forth and Fifth Circle Roads shall be disposed of; and by year 2005, the 36 pileup areas of garbage located between the Fifth and Sixth Circle Roads shall be disposed of. Meanwhile, garbage collection and transportation facilities shall be improved or rebuilt to achieve the garbage-obturation management, the mechanism of long-term effective management shall be established and inspection and clearance maintenance shall be intensified.

3.7 To Set Up Medical Waste Centralized Disposal System

The safeguarding control of the medical waster shall be effectively improved. Meanwhile, two centralized disposal facilities, with a joint capacity of daily disposal volume of 65 tons, shall be set up, among which the first one shall be completed in year 2004 and the second one in year 2005, to standardize the disposal of all medical waste in Beijing.

3.8 To Standardize The Collection, Transportation And Disposal Of Dining And Kitchen Waste

The “Beijing Dining and Kitchen Waste Disposal Regulation” shall be promulgated in year 2004. It is planned that the dining and kitchen waste central disposal plants are to be set up each in Weishanzhuang of Daxing District, Gao’an tun of Chaoyang District, Dongcun of Tongzhou District and Liulitun of Haidian District. Among them, two plants are to be completed by year 2004 to form a daily garbage disposal capacity of 600 tons and the rest two are to be completed by year 2005 to form an additional garbage disposal capability at 600 tons per day. By then a scale of garbage disposal capability at 1,200 tons per day shall be reached.

3.9  To Complete Dejecta Centralized Disposal System

By the end of year 2003, 10 dejecta disposal stations in the eight urban districts are to be completed, basically meeting the daily demand for centralized dejecta disposal at 4,400 tons. The satellite towns in the suburb shall speed up the construction of the centralized dejecta disposal facilities at the same time of improving sewage treatment plants and pipeline networks.? The aim for the centralized dejecta disposal in the satellite towns is to reach the disposal rate at 30% by year 2003, 40% by year 2004, 50% by year 2005, 60% by year 2006 and 80% by year 2008.

  1. IV. The Guarantee Measures On Domestic Garbage Disposal
    1. 4.1 To Introduce The Mechanism Of Competition And To Increase Capital Investment

The total investment on garbage disposal facilities construction projects will reach 3.2 billion Yuan by 2008 in Beijing. The finance departments at municipal and district levels shall keep increasing their investment in these areas. Meanwhile, competition shall be introduced to transform the situation of governments’ sole funding and monopoly. By the way of the establishment of an opening and regulated market system and running mechanism, non-government fund and enterprises from home and abroad shall be widely absorbed and encouraged to contribute to investment and operation of these projects. The mechanism of market access, mainly consisting of that of concession, shall be established. The construction and operation of the projects shall be performed mainly in the ways such as bidding and under the principles of being open, fairness and impartiality, so as to protect legal rights and benefits of the investors and procure that these projects shall be completed and operated on schedule.

    1. 4.2To Reinforce The Management In Line With Law And To Identify The Responsibilities At All Levels

The “Beijing Metropolis Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Regulations” shall be fully implemented, and the inspection and supervision against the implementation situations of responsibility takers shall be reinforced. The municipal, district and county, subdistrict and township governments shall be responsible for the metropolis appearance and environmental sanitation within their respective administrative areas; the community neighborhood committees shall be responsible for organizing the collection of the garbage in their respective communities; entities and individuals shall also be responsible for the metropolis appearance and environmental sanitation within their respective responsibility zones. The garbage in the urban area shall be disposed of on the same day when it occurs by the obturated collection and transportation as planned. The network shall be developed and expanded to varioussubdistricts and townships where garbage collection, cleaning and sanitational maintenance shall also be specialized. The standards with regard to environmental sanitation quality, industry administration, service and construction of the facilities shall be formulated and further developed. The circuit examination system in respect of metropolis appearance and environmental sanitation shall be established, the forcefulness on law implementation and supervision shall be reinforced and any violation thereof shall be punished timely. The departments concerned shall expedite in producing the policy of inspection and of corresponding rewards and punishment and shall identify the management responsibilities at all levels.

    1. 4.3 To Promote Garbage Classification And To Improve The Resource Utilization Rate

Garbage classification shall be performed from the early stage of garbage dumping, to its collection, transportation and final disposal. The simplified burial of garbage unclassified shall be intentionally decreased and eventually prohibited. The classified garbage collection facilities shall be built up in the newly built, expanded or rebuilt communities, mansion and industrial zones, while the establishment of facilities of this kind shall also be speeded up in old residential communities. The mechanism on voluntary garbage recycling and on charges upon garbage producers shall be taken into effect. It is encouraged for the non-government bodies to set up the enterprises engaging in the garbage resource- recycling, so as to reduce the volume of garbage and promote the recycling of garbage.

    1. 4.4 To Be Equipped With Advanced Technique And To Encourage Innovation

The transform from pollution-free-treatment-focused measures to those of comprehensive resource utilization shall be encouraged. Research and development shall be reinforced and the advanced technique and mechanism, suitable for the local situation of Beijing, shall be introduced and exploited. In order to increase the garbage burial techniques and promote the integral utilization of the garbage resources, the methods in respect of the volume reduction of garbage and the technique framework for the garbage resources utilization shall be established and improved. It is necessary to build up a number of modernized high-technique garbage disposal facilities, including incineration facilities, all of which will have the effects of demonstration and the high technical content and be able to achieve the effective utilization of garbage resources.

    1. 4.5 To Promote Propaganda And To Encourage The Civilian Participation

The social awareness upon enviromental protection and sanitary responsibilities shall be improved through media, voluntary work and community propaganda, leading to a kind of civilization and healthy lifestyle. The governmental departments in charge shall establish and improve public supervision mechanism and further promote the establishment and management of information service system such as “Municipal Administration Hot Line” and “Metropolis Administration Hot Line”, to procure the active participation by citizens and social bodies into domestic garbage management. The public supervision mechanism and social assessment system shall be established and well developed.

Conclusion

This White Paper is the first public document promulgated by Beijing Municipal Government in respect of domestic garbage disposal. It is the government’s pronouncement on achievement of disposal object. It is a guidance to direct the action of the departments concerned and it is the honorable mission and implementation rule of the governments at all levels and its working personnel. Representing and reflecting the desires and expectation of all the residents in Beijing, its issuance means that Beijing Municipal Government makes its commitment to the whole society. Meanwhile, it is also evidence by which people from all walks of life including the whole citizens may supervise and examine governments in performing their respective duties in this area. The governments at all levels and their working personnel shall follow the requirements of the White Paper and shall, with a highly responsible attitude and by the elaborated management and organization, procure to achieve the goal of the garbage disposal, to create a neat and beautiful environment for living and working, and to devote themselves to the promising prospect of “New Beijing, Great Olympic”!

前 言

为了增强首都城市功能,提高市民生活质量,北京市不断加大生活垃圾处理设施投入和环境综合整治力度,城乡环境得到了明显改善。但是,以举办一届最出色的奥运会、率先基本实现现代化和建设现代化国际大都市的要求来衡量,目前的生活垃圾治理水平还很难适应未来经济和社会发展的需要。特别是经历非典疫情之后,社会各界和广大市民对城乡环境卫生更加关注,保护环境、追求文明健康生活方式的愿望更加强烈,迫切需要制定目标明确、措施有力、符合绿色奥运要求的《北京市生活垃圾治理白皮书》(以下简称《白皮书》),以指导北京市生活垃圾治理事业的新发展。

根据北京市政府的决定,依据《北京市国民经济和社会发展第十个五年计划纲要》、《落实奥运行动计划垃圾处理设施的建设规划》和《北京市市容环境卫生条例》,结合北京防治非典疫情后的实际,北京市市政管理委员会组织了《白皮书》的起草。在起草过程中,充分吸收了国内外先进理念,广泛征求了各区县、有关部门、社会各界和专家的意见。现已经市政府常务会讨论通过。

《白皮书》是以建立生活垃圾减量化、资源化、无害化和产业化的基础结构为主线,以突出解决好当前生活垃圾和医疗废物的收集与处理方面存在的问题为重点,在分析北京市生活垃圾治理现状和存在问题基础上,提出了生活垃圾治理的原则、目标、任务和措施。《白皮书》所提出的工作目标和任务全部要在2008年以前完成。

一、生活垃圾治理的基本现状及预测

(一)发展历程

11 二十世纪八十年代以来,特别是九五期间,北京市市、区两级政府不断加大投入,加快环卫设施建设,健全管理体制,城市生活垃圾收集、运输、处理体系基本形成。城市生活垃圾收运方式从摇铃倒土的手工劳动逐步发展到机械化、密闭化作业;垃圾处理方式也由露天堆放、简易填埋发展到以卫生填埋为主,焚烧、堆肥和综合处理为辅的无害化处理阶段。

(二)现状情况

12 垃圾产生量。我市人均日产生活垃圾0.82公斤,全市日产垃圾1.15万吨,年产垃圾421万吨;日产医疗废物40多吨;餐厨垃圾约1050吨。

13 垃圾收集。城市生活垃圾收集主要由各区环卫服务中心、街道保洁队伍和物业公司收集到指定的垃圾站,再由专业作业队伍运送到垃圾处理厂进行处理;机关、企事业单位和社会团体的生活垃圾主要以合同的形式委托环卫专业队伍进行收集。

14 垃圾分类。我市现有3000多个居住小区、大厦和工业区(其中1500个实行了物业管理),有465个居住小区、大厦和工业区实现生活垃圾分类收集、运输和处理,城镇人口生活垃圾分类率达到15%

15 垃圾处理。主要方式是卫生填埋、堆肥和焚烧,所占比重分别为89.6%5.8%4.6%。现已建成垃圾处理设施17座,其中,垃圾卫生填埋场9座,垃圾堆肥厂2座,垃圾焚烧厂2座,垃圾转运站4座,日处理能力为8800吨。生活垃圾资源化率为10%

16 清扫保洁。责任分工是:城市主干道,如长安街和二、三、四环路等,由专业公司负责;城市次干道,由所在各区县环卫服务中心负责;街巷胡同由街道办事处负责;居住小区和居民休闲场所由物业管理单位负责;高速路、快速路由产权单位负责。

17 垃圾管理。在城八区的大部分地区和郊区卫星城基本上形成了较为完备的垃圾管理系统;城乡结合部、郊区乡镇等地区尚未形成规范的垃圾管理系统,垃圾露天堆放或简易填埋的现象比较普遍。由于农村大部分地区的垃圾还没有纳入到规范化管理范围,每年实际运输到垃圾处理场的生活垃圾约为321万吨。

18 垃圾收费。向单位和个人收取的费用主要有三项:卫生日常保洁费,由保洁公司或物业管理公司向单位或居民个人收取;城市生活垃圾处理费,每户每月3元,暂住人口每人每月2元,由社区居委会或小区物业管理公司代收;垃圾委托清运费,每吨25元,由清运公司向委托单位收取。

(三)生活垃圾产生量、分类及成分情况预测

19 垃圾产生量变化。随着人口增长、经济发展和人民生活水平的提高,垃圾产生量以每年大约2%的速度增长。到2008年,我市生活垃圾日产生量将达到1.2万吨,年产生量约438万吨;日产医疗废物将达到60吨左右;日产餐厨垃圾将达到1200吨左右。

110 垃圾分类变化。随着居民环保意识提高和政府的推动,开展垃圾源头分类的覆盖范围和资源综合利用水平将会逐年提高。预计今后每年将新增垃圾分类小区、大厦、工业区200300个,每年可减少垃圾量约4.4万吨。

111 垃圾成分变化。随着人们生活质量的提高,生活垃圾成分变化的趋势是:热值不断上升,容重继续下降,有机物比例增长,可回收利用物越来越多。

 

二、生活垃圾治理的基本原则

2.1 以人为本原则。从生活垃圾的收集、运输到最终处理实施全过程管理,防止对环境造成二次污染,切实保障人民群众的身体健康。

2.2 可持续发展原则。以建设生态城市为目标,大力推进生活垃圾的减量化、资源化、无害化,最大限度地降低垃圾填埋数量,实现保护生态环境、合理利用资源和防治环境污染的统一。

2.3 城乡一体化原则。改变城乡结合部、乡镇村垃圾处理的无序状态,有计划地将其纳入环境卫生管理体系,实现城乡统一规划、协调发展。

2.4 社会参与原则。鼓励境内外各类资本参与垃圾处理设施的建设和运营,实现投资主体多元化、运营主体企业化和垃圾处理产业化。加快建立社会参与机制和监督机制。

三、2008年生活垃圾治理目标与任务

(一)治理目标

31 总体目标。到2008年,基本建成生活垃圾减量化、资源化、无害化和产业化的基础结构;健全和完善以生活垃圾分类收集处理为主的管理系统、收集系统和处理设施系统;不断提高管理的科学化、规范化、标准化、法制化;基本形成城乡统筹、布局合理、技术先进、资源得到有效利用的现代化生活垃圾治理体系

(二)工作任务

32 加大投入,加快垃圾处理设施建设。根据《北京市国民经济和社会发展第十个五年计划纲要》和《落实奥运行动计划垃圾处理设施的建设规划》发展目标,2008年前,要完成新建15座垃圾处理设施,形成日处理垃圾1.25万吨的能力。具体建设项目包括:垃圾填埋场3座,综合处理厂7座,焚烧厂3座,转运站2座。具体建设计划是:2003年建成门头沟焦家坡垃圾卫生填埋场;2005年前建成丰台、阿苏卫、董村、朝阳、海淀、房山、怀柔7座垃圾综合处理厂和大屯、石景山2座垃圾转运站;2008年前建成安定(二期)、大杜社2座垃圾卫生填埋场和朝阳、南宫、海淀3座垃圾焚烧厂。

33 提高城区垃圾无害化处理率。城八区垃圾无害化处理率:2003年达到91%2004年达到93%2005年达到94%2006年达到96%2007年达到97%2008年达到98%

34 加快郊区垃圾收集处理的规范化管理2008年前,对我市各卫星城、乡镇政府所在地和便于收集运输的平原地区的垃圾,全部收集到规范的处理场进行处理。郊区垃圾无害化处理率:2003年达到20%2004年达到30%2005年达到35%2006年达到40%2007年达到45%2008年达到50%。其它不具备条件的地区,要积极创造条件,因地制宜,按照规划要求在指定地点进行简易处理。

35 扩大垃圾源头分类覆盖范围及资源利用水平。采用先进处理工艺和科学技术政策,提高综合利用率。到2008年,城镇地区垃圾源头分类率由目前的15%提高到50%;垃圾资源化率由目前的10%提高到30%

36 治理堆积量在200吨以上的73处垃圾堆积点2003年前治理四环路以内的9处;2004年前治理四环路至五环路之间的28处;2005年前治理五环路至六环路之间的36处。同时,配套改造和完善垃圾收运设施,实现垃圾密闭化管理,并建立长效管理机制,加强巡查和保洁。

37 建立医疗废物集中处理系统。 在切实加强医疗废物安全管理的同时,新建两座医疗废物集中处理设施。2004年建成第一座,2005年建成第二座,形成日处理65吨的能力,使我市医疗废物全部纳入规范化安全管理。

38 规范餐厨垃圾的集中收集、运输和处理2004年出台《北京市餐厨垃圾管理办法》。在大兴区魏善庄、朝阳区高安屯、通州区董村、海淀区六里屯各建设一座餐厨垃圾集中处理厂。2004年建成两座,形成日处理能力600吨;2005年再建成两座,新增日处理能力600吨,届时达到日处理能力1200吨的规模。

39 完善粪便集中处理系统2003年底,完成城八区建成10座粪便集中处理设施,基本满足城八区约每日4400吨粪便集中处理的需要。郊区卫星城在完善污水处理厂和污水管网的同时,要加快粪便集中处理设施的建设。卫星城粪便集中处理规划目标是:2003年达到30%2004年达到40%2005年达到50%2006年达到60%2007年达到70%2008年达到80%

四、实现生活垃圾治理目标的保障措施

41 引入竞争机制,加大资金投入。2008年,我市用于垃圾处理设施建设项目的总投资约32亿元。市、区两级财政要不断加大投入。同时要引入竞争机制,改变建设资金政府大包大揽、行业垄断经营的模式。要通过建立开放、规范的市场体系和运行机制,广泛吸引境内外社会资金和企业参与这些项目的投资与运营。要建立以特许经营为核心的市场准入制度,按照公开、公正、公平的原则,对项目的建设和运营主要采用招投标等方式运作,保障投资者的合法权益,确保这些建设项目按期建成投入使用。

42 依法加强管理,落实各级责任。全面落实《北京市市容环境卫生条例》,依法加强对各责任主体落实情况的检查和监督。市、区县、街乡镇政府负责辖区内市容环境卫生工作的管理;社区居委会负责组织好本区域内生活垃圾的收集工作;单位和个人要做好市容环卫责任区内的市容环卫工作。城市建成区的生活垃圾实行日产日清制度,做到按计划实行密闭化收集和运输。各街、乡镇生活垃圾的收集运输和卫生保洁要实行专业化作业,健全管理网络。制定和完善环境卫生作业质量标准、行业管理标准、服务标准和环卫设施建设管理标准。建立市容环境卫生巡查制度,加大执法监督力度,及时查处违规行为。市、区政府主管部门要加快制定考核奖惩办法,切实落实管理责任制。

43 推广垃圾分类,提高资源化水平。坚持从源头抓起,实行垃圾分类投放、分类收集、分类运输和分类处理,逐步减少以至最终禁止混合垃圾直接填埋处理。在新建、改建和扩建的小区、大厦、工业区,要配套建设相应的垃圾分类收集设施,老旧住宅区也要加快增建垃圾分类收集设施。建立垃圾义务回收制度和垃圾产生者付费制度,鼓励社会力量兴办垃圾资源再生利用企业,促进垃圾的减量和回收利用。

44 依靠科技进步,推进技术创新。加快生活垃圾无害化为主的处理方式向资源化综合利用方式的转变。加大科技攻关力度,开发和引进一批适合北京情况的先进适用技术。建立和完善垃圾减量化的途径和垃圾资源化的整体技术框架,提高现有垃圾卫生填埋工艺,促进垃圾资源综合利用。建设一批包括焚烧在内的科技含量高、资源利用率大、具有示范效应的现代化垃圾处理设施。

4.5 加强宣传工作,扩大市民参与。通过新闻媒体、志愿者参与和社区公益性宣传等多种形式,提高全社会对环境卫生的参与意识和责任意识,引导市民养成文明、健康的卫生习惯。政府主管部门要建立和完善公众监督机制,进一步加强“市政热线”、“城管热线”等信息服务系统的建设和管理,建立社会评价体系,为市民和社会各界参与生活垃圾管理提供方便、快捷的条件。

结束语

此《白皮书》是北京市政府制定的第一部向社会公开发布的关于生活垃圾治理的文件。它是北京市政府实现治理目标的宣言,是指导相关部门工作的纲领,是各级政府和每一个工作人员的光荣使命和操作守则。它的发布代表和反映了全市市民的意愿和期望,标志着北京市政府向全社会做出了承诺,同时它也是社会各界和全体市民监督检查各级政府落实这项工作的依据。各级政府和全体工作人员一定按照《白皮书》的要求,以高度责任心和使命感,精心组织、严格管理,确保治理目标的实现,为北京市市民创造一个整洁、优美的生活和工作环境,为实现新北京、新奥运的美好前景而竭尽全力!

 


 
 

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