WHITE PAPER ON THE DOMESTIC GARBAGE DISPOSAL IN BEIJING
In order to enhance the urban function of the capital and improve the living standard of residents, the Beijing Municipal Government has been increasing its investment in domestic garbage disposal facilities and its emphasis in comprehensive environmental treatment, leading to a significant improvement on the urban and suburban environment. However, it is still difficult to make the current situation of domestic garbage disposal meet the requirement of the social and economic development in the future, when assessed according to the requirements of hosting the forthcoming Olympic Game with the best quality, taking the lead in basically accomplishing modernization and becoming a modern metropolitan city with international dimension. After the epidemic of SARS, people from all walks of life, including citizens pay more attention upon environmental sanitation, both urban and suburban, and show stronger desire in environment protection and pursuit of civilized and healthy lifestyle. This makes it urgent to prepare the “White Paper on The Disposal of Domestic Garbage In Beijing” (hereinafter referred to as the “White Paper”), a paper to be drafted to incorporate a clear objective and efficient implementation methods and to meet the requirements of “Green Olympic”, to guide the further development of the domestic garbage disposal management in Beijing.
In line with the decisions of the Beijing Municipal Government, Beijing Municipal Administration Commission initiated the drafting of the White Paper, based on “The Outline of the Tenth Five-Year Plan on Beijing National Economic and Social Development”, “The Layout on the Establishment of the Garbage Disposal Facilities to Fulfill Olympic Implementation Plan” and “Beijing Metropolis Appearance and Enviromental Sanitation Regulations”, and in consideration of the post-SARS situation. When drafting this White Paper, Beijing Municipal Administration Commission fully absorbed the advanced concepts, both domestic and abroad, and widely sought the opinions and proposals from various district and county governments, relevant departments, relevant social bodies and experts. This drafting has been passed in the regular meeting of the Municipal Government.
The White Paper, by framing the reduction of, resource utilization of, pollution-free treatment of and industrialization of the domestic garbage, by focusing on the solutions to the present problems in connection with the collection and disposal of the domestic garbage and medical waste, and based on the analysis of the present situation and problems of the garbage disposal in Beijing, proposes the principles, aims, tasks and solutions of the domestic garbage disposal. The proposed aims and tasks shall be completed entirely by the year 2008.
I. The Present Situation Of Garbage Disposal And The Relevant Forecast
1. The Development
- 1.1 Since 1980’s, especially during the period of “the Ninth Five-Year Plan”, both Beijing Municipal Government and District Governments have been increasing their investment in, and accelerating the establishment of, environmental protection facilities, and improving the relating management system. The system for the domestic garbage’s collection, transportation and disposal has been formed essentially. The method for the collection of the urban domestic garbage has developed from that of manual work like emptying garbage when the bell rung to that of mechanized and obturated work; and the disposal methods have developed from those of open-air pileup and of simplified burial to those of the pollution-free sanitary burial (the main method), of incineration, of composting and of comprehensive disposals (the auxiliary methods).
- 2. The Present Situation
1.2 The Volume Of Garbage
In Beijing, the daily average volume of garbage is 0.82 kg per person. The average volume of garbage for the whole city is 11,500 tons per day and 4,210,000 tons per year. The daily average volume of medical waste is more than 40 tons and the daily average volume of dining and kitchen waste is around 1,050 tons.
1.3 Garbage Collection
The main method of collection is that garbage is collected and sent to the designated garbage stations by the environmental sanitation service centers of districts, cleaning maintenance teams of streets and property management companies, and subsequently sent by the specialist teams to garbage treatment plants; the garbage produced by governmental offices, enterprises and social bodies shall be collected by environmental protection specialist teams under the relating contracts.
1.4 Garbage Classification
There are more than 3000 residential communities, mansions and industrial zones in Beijing（among which 1500 have been covered by property management）, and the garbage classification, collection, transportation and disposal have been operated in 465 of them. The proportion of the classification of the city domestic garbage is 15%.
1.5 Garbage Disposal
The main methods include sanitary burial, composting and incineration, as proportion of 89.6%, 5.8% and 4.6% respectively. 17 garbage treatment facilities, composing of 9 sanitary burial fields, 2 junk composting factories, 2 incineration factories and 4 transportation transfer stations, have been set up. The daily garbage treatment capacity is 8,800 tons and the resource utilization rate is 10%.
1.6 Cleaning And Maintenance
The task is divided as follows: the trunk-roads of the city, such as Chang An Avenue, the Second Circle, the Third Circle and the Forth Circle, are under the responsibilities of specialist companies; the branch-roads are under the responsibilities of the environmental sanitation service centers of the counties and districts where they are located; the alleys and bystreets are under the responsibilities of subdistrict offices; residential communities and residential fallow premiers are under the responsibilities of property management companies; highways and expressways are under the responsibilities of their respective owners.
1.7 Garbage Management
The fairly developed garbage treatment management system has been formed in main areas of the eight urban districts and suburban satellite towns, but unavailable in the crossing border between the urban and rural areas and the suburban townships, where the open-air pileup or simple burial is common. Due to the undeveloped garbage management in most of the area of the rural areas, the volume of the domestic garbage actually transported therefrom to the treatment centers is only 3,210,000 tons per year.
Three kinds of fees are charged on individuals and entities concerned: the regular cleaning and maintenance fee, charged by relevant cleaning companies or property management companies; the city domestic garbage disposal fee, at 3 Yuan per household per month (in respect of temporary residents, 2 Yuan per person per month), collected by relevant community neighborhood committees or community property management companies by commission; the entrusted cleaning and transporting fee, at 25 Yuan per ton, charged by relevant cleaning and transporting companies upon the entrusters.
3. The Forecast On The Volume, Classification And Components Of Domestic Garbage
1.9 Variation On The Volume Of Garbage.
As the population expands, the economy develops and the living quality of people increases, the volume of garbage increases at a speed around 2% per year. By year 2008, the daily garbage volume of Beijing will reach 12,000 tons and annually, 4,380,000 tons. The daily medical waste will reach around 60 tons and the daily dining and kitchen garbage around 1,200 tons.
1.10 Changes On Classification.
As the environmental protection awareness of residents improves and the favorable government policies promote, it will climb gradually year by year for the application of garbage early-stage classification and the resource utilization rate. It is forecasted that the number of the communities, mansions and industrial zones with garbage classification will increase by 200-300 every year from now on, leading to a reduction on the annual garbage volume at 44,000 tons.
1.11 Changes In Garbage Components
As the living quality of people increases, the trends of the components variation of domestic garbage shall be as follows: - calorie keeps climbing, gravitational density declining, and the proportion of organic substances and the volume of recyclable substances increasing.
II.The Fundamental Principles Of Domestic Garbage Disposal
- 2.1 Human-Oriented Principle
Full-process management shall be implemented in respect of the garbage collection, transportation and final disposal. The second-time pollution shall be prevented and the people’s health shall be effectively safeguarded.?
- 2.2 Persistentable Development
Under the goal of establishing an ecological city, work in respect of the volume reduction, resource utilization and pollution-free treatment of domestic garbage shall be actively pushed and the quantity of garbage to be buried shall be reduced in a maximum extent, so as to bring together ecological environmental protection, reasonable resource utilization and effective pollution prevention.
- 2.3 Urban-Rural Area Integration
The chaos in the garbage treatment in the areas of the urban-rural crossing border and of the countryside, of township and of villages shall be changed and the garbage disposal in the abovementioned areas shall be incorporated into the environment and sanitary management system, to realize the integrated planning and management in the urban-rural area.
- 2.4 Social Participation
Investment from home and abroad into the construction and operation of the garbage disposal facilities is encouraged so as to realize diversified investment bodies, enterprisation in operation and industrialization in the garbage disposal. The system for social participation and supervision shall be developed with due expedition.
III. The Aim And Tasks Of Domestic Garbage Disposal By Year 2008
3.1 General Aim
By year 2008, the basic structure in respect of domestic garbage reduction, resource utilization, pollution free treatment and industrialization has been roughly formed. The systems of management, collection and disposal facilities, mainly consisting of garbage classification and collection, have been soundly developed.The scientification, regularization, standardization and legalization of the management have been constantly improved. The modern garbage treatment system with the characterization of urban-rural area unified management, reasonable layout, advanced technique and effective resource utilization has been fairly established.
3.2 To Increase Investment In And Expedite The Construction Of Garbage Treatment Facilities
According to “The Outline of the Tenth Five-Year Plan on Beijing National Economic and Social Development”, “The Implemental Layout on the Garbage Disposal Facilities to Fulfill Olympic Implementation Plan”, by 2008, the construction of 15 new garbage treatment facilities, with the total daily disposal capacity of 12,500 tons, shall have been completed. The facilities to be constructed compose of 3 garbage burial stations, 7 comprehensive treatment plants, 3 burning plants and 2 transporting stations. The detailed plan is that: by year 2003, the establishment of Jiao Jia Po garbage burial station located in Mentougou shall be completed; by year 2005, the establishment of the garbage treatment plant in Fangshan, of the seven comprehensive treatment plants respectively located in Asuwei, Dongcun, Chaoyong, Haidian, Fangshan, Huairou and of the two garbage transporting stations separately located in Datun and Shijingshan shall be completed; the establishment of Anding (the second phase), of the two sanitary burial stations all located in Dadushe and of the three burning stations separately located in Chaoyang, Nangong and Haidian shall be completed by 2008.
3.3 To Improve The Rate Of Pollution-Free Disposal Of Garbage Within The Zone Of The Urban Ares
The rate of pollution-free disposal of garbage within the eight urban districts will reach 91% by year 2003, 93% by year 2004, 94% by year 2005, 96% by year 2006, 97% by year 2007 and 98% by year 2008.
3.4 To Expedite The Standardization Of Suburban Garbage Collection And Treatment
By year 2008, the garbage occurred in the satellite towns, in the areas where township governments are located, and in the plain areas where the collection and transportation of the garbage is convenient shall be completely collected and sent to the standardized treatment stations for disposal. The pollution-free treatment rate in the suburban area shall reach 20% by year 2003, 30% by year 2004, 35% by year 2005, 40% by year 2006, 45% by year 2007 and 50% by year 2008. To the areas failing to meet the above conditions, the effective ways and situations shall be worked out, while the local conditions thereof are taken into account, so that the simplified disposal of garbage shall follow the stipulation of the layout and be implemented in the designated areas.
3.5To Expand The Application Of Garbage Early-Stage Classification And To Increase The Resource Utilization Rate
The advanced treatment technique and science and technology policies for garbage disposal shall be adopted to improve the resource utilization rate. Upon 2008, the? proportion of application of garbage early-stage classification in the areas of the metropolis and townships shall increase from 15% as of today to 50% and the resource utilization rate shall increase from 10% as of today to 30%.
3.6 To Dispose Of The 73 Garbage Pileup Areas With The Total Pileup Volumes Over 200 Tons Each
The 9 pileup areas of garbage located within the Forth Circle Road shall be disposed of by year 2003; by year 2004, the 28 pileup areas of garbage located between the Forth and Fifth Circle Roads shall be disposed of; and by year 2005, the 36 pileup areas of garbage located between the Fifth and Sixth Circle Roads shall be disposed of. Meanwhile, garbage collection and transportation facilities shall be improved or rebuilt to achieve the garbage-obturation management, the mechanism of long-term effective management shall be established and inspection and clearance maintenance shall be intensified.
3.7 To Set Up Medical Waste Centralized Disposal System
The safeguarding control of the medical waster shall be effectively improved. Meanwhile, two centralized disposal facilities, with a joint capacity of daily disposal volume of 65 tons, shall be set up, among which the first one shall be completed in year 2004 and the second one in year 2005, to standardize the disposal of all medical waste in Beijing.
3.8 To Standardize The Collection, Transportation And Disposal Of Dining And Kitchen Waste
The “Beijing Dining and Kitchen Waste Disposal Regulation” shall be promulgated in year 2004. It is planned that the dining and kitchen waste central disposal plants are to be set up each in Weishanzhuang of Daxing District, Gao’an tun of Chaoyang District, Dongcun of Tongzhou District and Liulitun of Haidian District. Among them, two plants are to be completed by year 2004 to form a daily garbage disposal capacity of 600 tons and the rest two are to be completed by year 2005 to form an additional garbage disposal capability at 600 tons per day. By then a scale of garbage disposal capability at 1,200 tons per day shall be reached.
3.9 To Complete Dejecta Centralized Disposal System
By the end of year 2003, 10 dejecta disposal stations in the eight urban districts are to be completed, basically meeting the daily demand for centralized dejecta disposal at 4,400 tons. The satellite towns in the suburb shall speed up the construction of the centralized dejecta disposal facilities at the same time of improving sewage treatment plants and pipeline networks.? The aim for the centralized dejecta disposal in the satellite towns is to reach the disposal rate at 30% by year 2003, 40% by year 2004, 50% by year 2005, 60% by year 2006 and 80% by year 2008.
- IV. The Guarantee Measures On Domestic Garbage Disposal
- 4.1 To Introduce The Mechanism Of Competition And To Increase Capital Investment
The total investment on garbage disposal facilities construction projects will reach 3.2 billion Yuan by 2008 in Beijing. The finance departments at municipal and district levels shall keep increasing their investment in these areas. Meanwhile, competition shall be introduced to transform the situation of governments’ sole funding and monopoly. By the way of the establishment of an opening and regulated market system and running mechanism, non-government fund and enterprises from home and abroad shall be widely absorbed and encouraged to contribute to investment and operation of these projects. The mechanism of market access, mainly consisting of that of concession, shall be established. The construction and operation of the projects shall be performed mainly in the ways such as bidding and under the principles of being open, fairness and impartiality, so as to protect legal rights and benefits of the investors and procure that these projects shall be completed and operated on schedule.
- 4.2To Reinforce The Management In Line With Law And To Identify The Responsibilities At All Levels
The “Beijing Metropolis Appearance and Environmental Sanitation Regulations” shall be fully implemented, and the inspection and supervision against the implementation situations of responsibility takers shall be reinforced. The municipal, district and county, subdistrict and township governments shall be responsible for the metropolis appearance and environmental sanitation within their respective administrative areas; the community neighborhood committees shall be responsible for organizing the collection of the garbage in their respective communities; entities and individuals shall also be responsible for the metropolis appearance and environmental sanitation within their respective responsibility zones. The garbage in the urban area shall be disposed of on the same day when it occurs by the obturated collection and transportation as planned. The network shall be developed and expanded to varioussubdistricts and townships where garbage collection, cleaning and sanitational maintenance shall also be specialized. The standards with regard to environmental sanitation quality, industry administration, service and construction of the facilities shall be formulated and further developed. The circuit examination system in respect of metropolis appearance and environmental sanitation shall be established, the forcefulness on law implementation and supervision shall be reinforced and any violation thereof shall be punished timely. The departments concerned shall expedite in producing the policy of inspection and of corresponding rewards and punishment and shall identify the management responsibilities at all levels.
- 4.3 To Promote Garbage Classification And To Improve The Resource Utilization Rate
Garbage classification shall be performed from the early stage of garbage dumping, to its collection, transportation and final disposal. The simplified burial of garbage unclassified shall be intentionally decreased and eventually prohibited. The classified garbage collection facilities shall be built up in the newly built, expanded or rebuilt communities, mansion and industrial zones, while the establishment of facilities of this kind shall also be speeded up in old residential communities. The mechanism on voluntary garbage recycling and on charges upon garbage producers shall be taken into effect. It is encouraged for the non-government bodies to set up the enterprises engaging in the garbage resource- recycling, so as to reduce the volume of garbage and promote the recycling of garbage.
- 4.4 To Be Equipped With Advanced Technique And To Encourage Innovation
The transform from pollution-free-treatment-focused measures to those of comprehensive resource utilization shall be encouraged. Research and development shall be reinforced and the advanced technique and mechanism, suitable for the local situation of Beijing, shall be introduced and exploited. In order to increase the garbage burial techniques and promote the integral utilization of the garbage resources, the methods in respect of the volume reduction of garbage and the technique framework for the garbage resources utilization shall be established and improved. It is necessary to build up a number of modernized high-technique garbage disposal facilities, including incineration facilities, all of which will have the effects of demonstration and the high technical content and be able to achieve the effective utilization of garbage resources.
- 4.5 To Promote Propaganda And To Encourage The Civilian Participation
The social awareness upon enviromental protection and sanitary responsibilities shall be improved through media, voluntary work and community propaganda, leading to a kind of civilization and healthy lifestyle. The governmental departments in charge shall establish and improve public supervision mechanism and further promote the establishment and management of information service system such as “Municipal Administration Hot Line” and “Metropolis Administration Hot Line”, to procure the active participation by citizens and social bodies into domestic garbage management. The public supervision mechanism and social assessment system shall be established and well developed.
This White Paper is the first public document promulgated by Beijing Municipal Government in respect of domestic garbage disposal. It is the government’s pronouncement on achievement of disposal object. It is a guidance to direct the action of the departments concerned and it is the honorable mission and implementation rule of the governments at all levels and its working personnel. Representing and reflecting the desires and expectation of all the residents in Beijing, its issuance means that Beijing Municipal Government makes its commitment to the whole society. Meanwhile, it is also evidence by which people from all walks of life including the whole citizens may supervise and examine governments in performing their respective duties in this area. The governments at all levels and their working personnel shall follow the requirements of the White Paper and shall, with a highly responsible attitude and by the elaborated management and organization, procure to achieve the goal of the garbage disposal, to create a neat and beautiful environment for living and working, and to devote themselves to the promising prospect of “New Beijing, Great Olympic”!